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--Chapter 1--

--Chapter 2--

--Chapter 3--

--Chapter 4--

--Chapter 5--

--Chapter 6--

--Chapter 7--

--Chapter 8--

--Chapter 9--

--Chapter 10--

--Chapter 11--

--Chapter 12--

--Chapter 13--

--Chapter 14--

--Chapter 15--

--Chapter 16--

--Chapter 17--

--Chapter 18--

--Chapter 19--

--Chapter 20--

--Chapter 21--

--Chapter 22--

--Chapter 23--

--Chapter 24--

--Chapter 25--

--Chapter 26--

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Chapter 9: Covalent Bonding

9.2 Naming Molecules

●     You enter name of compound, you get formula. You put in formula, it gives you name of compound. Visit Site

Bond Energy Tables

● Chemistry - bond energy table - single bonds only Visit Site
●     Bond length vs bond energy Visit Site
●     bond energies ionic, triple cov., dbl cov., single cov. compared, also table of common bond energies  Visit Site


●     Bonding (Ionic vs covalent bonding). On this page, go to Ch 8, and select the ChemTour called "Bonding" - Animated and interactive. (WW Norton) Visit Site
●     Ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding (2 applets on same page, one below the other) - both are excellent (Kent Chem) Visit Site
●     3-types of bonding video - ionic (0-8:20), covalent (8:20-24:24), metallic (24:24-29) - (Kent Chem 29 min) Visit Site
●     Bonding - 3 tyypes, interactive applet for review - questions w immediate feedback (Washington State) Visit Site
● Video from MahanChem showing the difference between polar bonds vs polar molecules. If you like his style, go to and search his channel for "covalent". He has 5 videos that may all be of worth for Ch 9 Visit Site


●     Covalent pi bonds forming - animation (You Tube) Visit Site
●     Hybridization - pi and sigma bond formation, relates hybrids to molecular shape - lecture (excellent) Visit Site
●     Hybridization - animation of bonding showing change of shape of orbitals during bond formation. No audio (U-Tube vid) Visit Site
●     Hybridization - applet animation, interactive showing sp up to sp3d2 & how shape changes (McGraw-Hill) Visit Site
●     sp, sp2, and sp3 hybrids form in interactive animation (U Calgary) Visit Site
●     orbital diagrams merging as hybrids form (animation - U of Calgary) Visit Site
●     Each type of hybrid orbital we study has interactive animation showing normal orbitals merging & the resultant bond angles (McGraw-Hill) Visit Site
●     Interactive models of different hybridizations sp, sp2 , and sp3 interacive to form each (USC) Visit Site

Lewis Structures

●   Lew structure tutorial from McGraw Hills shows how to draw Lewis structures for individual atoms and for covalent compounds Visit Site

VSEPR - Molecular Geometry

●     Molecular Geometry video (Kent Chem 29 min) Visit Site
●     VSEPR - animation showing bond angles changing as atoms (or unshared pairs) are added to central atom Visit Site
●     VSEPR - Flash animation, compares 4 basic geometries of atoms around central atoms, great side-by-side comparisons Visit Site
●     Gallery of Molecules - inorganic, organic, & lots more Visit Site
  ● Build molecules in 3-D using animation from PhET. Shows bond angles, shapes, and you can build over and over. Wonderful Visit Site

Wigger Vids

●     Lewis Structures of covalent Molecules for beginners - Part 1. This is the first of 3 tutorials on beginners Lewis Structures of covalent molecules. This tutorial shows the details of you how to draw Lewis structure for water (H2O). Visit Site
●     This is the 2nd of 3 tutorials on beginners Lewis Structures of covalent molecules. This tutorial shows the details of you how to draw Lewis structures for Fluorine (F2) and ammonia (NH3).  Visit Site
●     This is the 3 part of my tutorial. You will see a detailed explanation of drawing the Lewis Structure for Methane (CH4), and the simple rules used to figure out if your Lewis Structure is correct.  Visit Site
●   In this video you will learn how to draw a Lewis Structure for a simple molecule. I use a chart to help you remember this method. Visit Site
●   Video directions for a HW assignment using an interactive applet that trains you on differences between Covalent and Ionic Bonds Visit Site
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