
Chapter 14:
Gases
14.1 The Gas Laws
Kinetic theory
Boyle’s Law: P _{1}V _{1}= P _{2}V _{2} (inversely proportional)
Charles's Law: V _{1}/T _{1} = V _{2}/T _{2}
GayLussac’s Law P _{1}/T _{1} = P _{2}/T _{2}
14.2 The Combined Gas Law and Avogadro’s Principle
combined gas law
(P_{1}V_{1}) / (n_{1}T_{1}) = (P_{2}V_{2}) / (n_{2}T_{2})
molar volume means – 1mole of any gas at STP = 22.4 L
14.3 The Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT the constant R depends on units of measure used for variables
Real vs ideal gases  For an ideal gas: (a) gas particles take up no space; (b) there are no intermolecular forces; follows the gas laws under all temp. and pressures conditions. There is no ideal gas, you can only get close. You get closest to ideal at VERY LOW pressures and HIGH temperatures.
Section 14.1 The Gas Laws

Section 14.2 The Combined Gas Law and Avogadro's Principle

Section 14.3 The Ideal Gas Law

Section 14.4 Gas Stiochiometry


Section 14.1 The Gas Laws

Section 14.2 The Combined Gas Law and Avogadro's Principle

Section 14.3 The Ideal Gas Law

Section 14.4 Gas Stiochiometry


Section 14.1 The Gas Laws
Standard 4 a  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: The random motion of molecules and their collisions with a surface create the observable pressure on that surface.
Students Will be able to:Explain how molecular motion and collisions create pressure. Book Reference Pages: 420
Standard 4 c  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: How to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
Students Will be able to:Solve mathematical problems using the gas laws. Perform an experiment and graph the data relating volume, temperature, and/or pressure. I&E (12E): Solve scientific problems using quadratic equations, and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Book Reference Pages: 421427
Standard 4 e  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: How to convert between Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
Students Will be able to:Demonstrate a knowledge of the Kelvin scale and compare it to the Celsius scale. Book Reference Pages: 425, 427
Standard 4 f  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: There is no temperature lower than 0 Kelvin.
Students Will be able to:Know the meaning of absolute zero. Book Reference Pages: 423
Standard 4 g  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: The kinetic theory of gases relates the absolute temperature of a gas to the average kinetic energy of its molecules or atoms.
Students Will be able to:Book Reference Pages: 419, 420


Section 14.2 The Combined Gas Law and Avogadro's Principle
Standard 3 d  Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
View Standard 3 State Standard: How to determine molar mass of a molecule from its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses, and how to convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles of volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
Students Will be able to:Calculate the molar mass from a chemical formula. Convert mass to moles to volume Book Reference Pages: 433
Standard 4 c  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: How to apply the gas laws to relations between the pressure, temperature, and volume of any amount of an ideal gas or any mixture of ideal gases.
Students Will be able to:Solve mathematical problems using the gas laws. Perform an experiment and graph the data relating volume, temperature, and/or pressure. I&E (12E): Solve scientific problems using quadratic equations, and simple trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Book Reference Pages: 428430, 433
Standard 4 d  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: The values and meanings of standard temperature and pressure (STP)
Students Will be able to:Calculate the molar volume using STP. Book Reference Pages: 430433
Standard 4 e  Gases and their Properties
View Standard 4 State Standard: How to convert between Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales.
Students Will be able to:Demonstrate a knowledge of the Kelvin scale and compare it to the Celsius scale. Book Reference Pages: 429


Section 14.3 The Ideal Gas Law

Section 14.4 Gas Stiochiometry
Standard 2 A  Chemical Bonds
View Standard 2 State Standard: Atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons t form covalent or metallic bonds, or by exchanging electrons to form ionic bonds
Students Will be able to:Describe and compare various bonding relationships including ionic, covalent, metallic bonding. Book Reference Pages: 442445
Standard 3 E  Conservation of Matter and Stoichiometry
View Standard 3 State Standard: How to calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products, and the relevant atomic masses.
Students Will be able to:Perform an experiment to determine the quantitative relationships between reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation. I&E (12A): Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computerlinked probes, spreadsheets and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. I&E (12B): Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental error. I&E (12C): Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as sourced of error or uncontrolled conditions. Book Reference Pages: 440443



 Boyle's Law  Tutorial: Shows how to work Boyle's law problems and the rules that must be observed.
 Charles Law  Tutorial: Shows how to work Charle's law problems and the rules that must be observed.
 Gas Laws Summary  Tutorial: This tutorial gives all of the formulas used to calcualte gas law problems.
 Converting Units of Measure in Gas Problems: Show conversions from one unit of measure to another for solving gas law problems.
 Universal and Ideal Gas Laws: Shows how to combine the gas laws and how to use the Universal Gas Law and how to use it.
Ch 14.1  Gas Laws
● Boyle's Law  Interactive Piston to demonstrate
P_{1}V_{1} = P_{2}V_{2} with graph Visit Site
● Charles Law  interactive piston in water bath, plots graph, demo of
V_{1} / T_{1} = V_{2} / T_{2} with graph Visit Site
● "Rock me Avogadro"  Gas Law song on video, KMT, and all gas laws, refers to Avogadro, lots of fun and good descriptions Visit Site

Gas Sim
● Best Gas Law simulator – all the controls, better visually – Java applet Oklahoma State)  fabulous!!!
activity available Visit Site
● Allows control of P, V, T, and n Visit Site
● Gas Sim allows control of n, T, size of molecule and more Visit Site
● Gas Sim from PhET, done with Java. Allows control of T, V, P, n independently, or set one variable to constant. Almost the best. Visit Site
● Gas Sim for the Boyle's Law lab to be done at home (see Labs for details of how to do) Visit Site

Wigger Vids
● Boyle Demo  uses bell jar and vac pump, balloon inside that is sealed expands and then contracts. Visit Site
● HW p. 433 #30 how to use PV=nRT and it variables Visit Site
● Boyle's Law Lab  using an online gas sim  how to perform this lab Visit Site
● DO NOW 31920  Shows two problems one using Ideal Gas Law and one using Combined Gas Law Visit Site
● HW p. 432 #24 using Combined Gas Law and #28 using PV=nRT Visit Site
● Gas Laws  Question 48 p438 Visit Site
● Gas Sim online MiniLab how variables Visit Site
● Gas Laws  p. 443, question 60  Gas Stoichiometry Visit Site
● Gas Laws Q 49 p438 finding molar mass Visit Site
● Gas Laws  p. 441.question 56 uses gas stoichiometry to get ratioes of volumes Visit Site
● p449 #106 uses PV = nRT and gas stoichiometry Visit Site
● Boyles Law (our first gas law)  p4221 complete solution Visit Site
● Charles Law  p425 6  complete solution Visit Site
● Introduction to PV = nRT problems  the basics  Part 1  Ideal Gas Law  one simple example with all variables being in units of measure PV = nRT can use. Visit Site
● Introduction to PV = nRT problems  the basics  Part 2  Ideal Gas Law  This problem requires you to convert 2 units of measure to different units compatible with PV = nRT. Visit Site
● How to identify Variables  aka how to classify P,V,n, & T by their units of measure. Example: if you are given Torr as a unit of measure, it wil be a Pressure, or P. Visit Site
● Gas Laws Q 49 p438 finding molar mass. Close Upgrade to the latest Flash Player for improved playback performance. Upgrade now or more info. make n = 1 mol, and use that to solve for V. Visit Site
 


Expand All Categories
