Ch 4 - Quiz 1.3 - Practice Quiz

 

DIRECTIONS:  Standard Directions (see “Standard Stuff  >  “Class Forms & Charts”

                                                                    >  A-Z Homework”  )

 

           1. The concept that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles was originally given by ____________________.

 

           2. Researchers discovered a subatomic particle while working with the cathode ray tube. The particle is known as a(n) ____________________.

 

           3. A ____________________ is a subatomic particle that has mass nearly equal to that of a proton, but it carries no electrical charge.

 

           4. Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons are called ____________________.

 

           5. Uranium is a naturally occurring element that emits particles and rays spontaneously through a process called _____________________.

 

           6. An alpha particle is _____________________ charged with two protons and neutrons.

 

           7. In the equation , the ___________________ decay of radioactive carbon-14 results in the creation of a new nitrogen-14 atom.

 

           8. A beta particle consists of a fast moving electron and has a(n) _____________________ charge.

 

           9. In nanotechnology, individual atoms are seen using the ____________________ microscope.

 

           10. The mass of an electron is ____________________ g.

 

           11. James Chadwick showed that the nucleus also contained a neutral subatomic particle known as the ____________________.

 

           12. Democritus believed that matter is made up of tiny individual particles known as a(n) ____________________.

 

           13. The number of protons in an atom is called the ____________________ of the element.

 

Short Answer

 

           14. Define an atom.

 

           15. What do you understand by the term atomic mass unit (amu)?

 

           16. What is a nuclear reaction?

 

           17. How are atomic number and mass number denoted in the chemical symbol of the isotope of an element? Express the shortened notation for an isotope of element X with atomic number 92 and atomic mass 238.

 

           18. Identify the element containing 34 protons.

 

           19. What were the main flaws in Dalton’s atomic theory?

 

           20. Fast moving electrons travel through the empty space surrounding the nucleus. How are electrons held within the atom?

 

Draw and label a diagram of each atomic model.

 

           21. plum pudding model

 

           22. nuclear atomic model

 

           23. Complete the following table of proton, electron, and neutron characteristics.

 

Particle

Symbol

Location

Relative Charge

Relative Mass

Proton

 

 

 

 

 

n0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/1840

 

 

           24. Lead has an atomic number of 82. How many protons and electrons does lead have?

 

           25. Oxygen has 8 electrons. How many protons does oxygen have?

 

           26. Zinc has 30 protons. What is its atomic number?

 

           27. Astatine has 85 protons. What is its atomic number?

 

           28. Rutherfordium has an atomic number of 104. How many protons and electrons does it have?

 

           29. Polonium has an atomic number of 84. How many protons and electrons does it have?

 

           30. Nobelium has an atomic number of 102. How many protons and electrons does it have?

 

Determine the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for each isotope described below.

 

           31. An isotope has atomic number 19 and mass number 39.

 

           32. An isotope has 14 electrons and a mass number of 28.

 

           33. An isotope has 21 neutrons and a mass number of 40.

 

           34. An isotope has an atomic number 51 and a mass number 123.

 

           35. Which of the isotopes in the problems above are isotopes of the same element? Identify the element.

 

Write each isotope below in symbolic notation. Use the periodic table to determine the atomic number of each isotope.

 

           36. neon-22

 

           37. helium

 

           38. cesium-133

 

           39. uranium-234

 

           40. Write the mass number of the following isotope notation.

 

           41. Write the atomic number of the following isotope notation.

 

Use the figures to answer the following questions.

 

 

           42. What is the atomic number of osmium?

 

           43. What is the chemical symbol for niobium?

 

           44. What is the atomic mass of osmium?

 

           45. What units is the atomic mass reported in?

 

           46. How many protons and electrons does an osmium atom have? A niobium atom?

 

Use the diagram to answer the questions.

 

 

           47. Which plate do the beta particles bend toward? Explain.

 

           48. Explain why the gamma rays do not bend.

 

           49. Explain why the path of the beta particles bends more than the path of the alpha particles.

 

           50. Complete the following table of the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

 

Radiation Type

Composition

Symbol

Mass (amu)

Charge

Alpha

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/1840

 

 

High-energy electromagnetic radiation

 

 

 

 

Problem

 

           51. Complete the following table:

Element

Number of protons

Number of electrons

Number of neutrons

Atomic number

Mass number

Sodium

 

11

12

 

 

Phosphorus

15

 

 

 

31

Cobalt

27

 

32

 

 

Bromine

 

35

 

 

80

Silver

 

 

61

47

 

 

 

           52. An element X has two naturally occurring isotopes: X-79 (abundance = 50.69%, mass = 78.918 amu) and X-81 (abundance = 49.31%, mass = 80.917 amu). Calculate the weighted atomic mass of X. Also, identify the unknown element which exists as a reddish-brown gas and is a liquid at room temperature.

 

           53. An element X has three naturally occurring isotopes: X-24, X-25, and X-26. The atomic mass of X-25 is 24.986 amu and the relative abundance is 10.00 %. The atomic mass of X-26 is 25.982 amu and the relative abundance is 11.01 %.Given that the weighted atomic mass of the element X is 24.305, calculate the mass contribution due to the isotope X-24 and identify the element.

 

           54. Calculate the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom of the element Pb with mass number 207 and atomic number 82.

 

           55. Calculate the mass in grams for 7 atoms of manganese (Mn) with atomic number 25 and mass number 55. (Given: mass of a proton = 1.673 ´ 10, mass of a neutron = 1.675 ´ ).

 

           56. Fluorine (F) contains 9 proton and 10 neutrons. Calculate its mass in amu for 81 atoms. (Given: mass of a proton = 1.007276 amu, mass of a neutron = 1.008665 amu).

 

           57. Lead contains 82 protons and 125 neutrons. Write the shortened notation of the element with its symbol, atomic number, and mass number.

 

           58. Complete the nuclear equations for the isotopes given in the table below:

Isotope

Decay

Nuclear equation

Carbon - 14

beta

 

Radium - 226

alpha

 

Uranium - 238

alpha and gamma

 

 


Ch 4 - Quiz 1.3 - Practice Quiz

Answer Section

 

COMPLETION

 

           1.                    ANS:  Democritus

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 88         

OBJ:   4.1.1 Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

NAT:  G.3 | UCP.2 | B.1 | B.2                    

TOP:   Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

KEY:  Atomic models           MSC:              1

 

           2.                    ANS:  electron

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 92 | Page 93     

OBJ:   4.2.1 Distinguish between the subatomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass.

NAT:  B.1 | G.3         STA:   1h                  

TOP:   Distinguish between the subatomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass.

KEY:  Electron          MSC:  1

 

           3.                    ANS:  neutron

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 96         

OBJ:   4.2.2 Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

NAT:  B.1 | G.3         STA:   1h                  

TOP:   Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

KEY:  Neutron          MSC:  1

 

           4.                    ANS:  isotopes

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 100        

OBJ:   4.3.2 Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

KEY:  Isotopes          MSC:  1

 

           5.                    ANS:  radioactivity

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 105        

OBJ:   4.4.1 Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.

KEY:  Radioactivity                                    MSC:  1

 

           6.                    ANS:  positively

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 106        

OBJ:   4.4.2 Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

KEY:  Alpha radiations                               MSC:  1

 

           7.                    ANS:  beta

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 107        

OBJ:   4.4.2 Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

KEY:  Beta decay      MSC:  2

 

           8.                    ANS:  negative

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 107        

OBJ:   4.4.2 Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

KEY:  Beta particle    MSC:  1

 

           9.                    ANS:  scanning tunneling

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 91          OBJ:   4.1.2 Define an atom.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Define an atom.                               KEY:  Atom

MSC:  1

 

           10.                  ANS:  9.1 ´ 10–28

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 94         

OBJ:   4.2.1 Distinguish between the subatomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass.

NAT:  B.1 | G.3         STA:   1h                  

TOP:   Distinguish between the subatomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass.

KEY:  Electron          MSC:  1

 

           11.                  ANS:  neutron

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 95         

OBJ:   4.2.2 Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

NAT:  B.1 | G.3         STA:   1h                  

TOP:   Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

KEY:  Neutron          MSC:  1

 

           12.                  ANS: 

atomos

atom

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 88         

OBJ:   4.1.1 Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

NAT:  G.3 | UCP.2 | B.1 | B.2                    

TOP:   Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

KEY:  Atom              MSC:  1

 

           13.                  ANS:  atomic number

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 98         

OBJ:   4.3.1 Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

KEY:  Atomic number                                MSC:  1

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

           14.                  ANS: 

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 90          OBJ:   4.1.2 Define an atom.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Define an atom.                               KEY:  Atom

MSC:  1

 

           15.                  ANS: 

The atomic mass unit measures the mass of an atom relative to the mass of carbon-12 atom, which is taken as a standard. One atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 102        

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Atomic mass unit                  MSC:              2

 

           16.                  ANS: 

A nuclear reaction involves a change in the nucleus of an atom. Such a reaction results in the change of an atom of one element into an atom of another element.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 105        

OBJ:   4.4.1 Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Explain the relationship between unstable nuclei and radioactive decay.

KEY:  Nuclear reactions                             MSC:  1

 

           17.                  ANS: 

The atomic number is written as the subscript in the chemical symbol of an element and the mass number is written as the superscript in the chemical symbol of an element. The notation for an isotope of element X is denoted as .

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 98 | Page 100   

OBJ:   4.3.2 Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

KEY:  Atomic number | Mass number | Isotopes                           MSC:  3

 

           18.                  ANS: 

The element containing 34 protons is Selenium (Se).

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 98         

OBJ:   4.3.1 Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

KEY:  Atomic number                                MSC:  1

 

           19.                  ANS: 

There were two main flaws in Dalton’s atomic theory.

a.     Atoms are not indivisible. They are divisible into several subatomic particles.

b.     All atoms of a given element may not have identical properties as their masses may vary slightly.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 90         

OBJ:   4.1.1 Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

NAT:  G.3 | UCP.2 | B.1 | B.2                    

TOP:   Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton.

KEY:  Dalton's atomic theory                      MSC:  2

 

           20.                  ANS: 

As the electrons are negatively charged, they are held within the atom by their attraction to the positively charged protons present in the nucleus.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 97         

OBJ:   4.2.2 Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

NAT:  B.1 | G.3         STA:   1h                  

TOP:   Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.

KEY:  Electron          MSC:  2

 

           21.                  ANS: 

Drawing should look like a ball of chocolate chip cookie dough. The chocolate chips should be labeled with negative charge or as electrons. The dough should be labeled as evenly distributed positive charges.

 

PTS:   1

 

           22.                  ANS: 

Drawing should look like a peach with a pit. The pit should be labeled nucleus and should include labeled protons and neutrons. The outer circle of the peach should be labeled electrons.

 

PTS:   1

 

           23.                  ANS: 

Particle

Symbol

Location

Relative Charge

Relative Mass

Proton

p+

In the nucleus

1+

1

Neutron

n0

In the nucleus

0

1

Electron

e

In the space surrounding the nucleus

1–

1/1840

 

 

PTS:   1

 

           24.                  ANS: 

82 protons; 82 electrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           25.                  ANS: 

8 protons

 

PTS:   1

 

           26.                  ANS: 

30

 

PTS:   1

 

           27.                  ANS: 

85

 

PTS:   1

 

           28.                  ANS: 

104 protons; 104 electrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           29.                  ANS: 

84 protons; 84 electrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           30.                  ANS: 

102 protons; 102 electrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           31.                  ANS: 

19 protons, 19 electrons, 20 neutrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           32.                  ANS: 

14 protons, 14 electrons, 14 neutrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           33.                  ANS: 

19 protons, 19 electrons, 21 neutrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           34.                  ANS: 

51 protons, 51 electrons, 72 neutrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           35.                  ANS: 

The two isotopes with atomic number 19 are both isotopes of potassium.

 

PTS:   1

 

           36.                  ANS: 

 

PTS:   1

 

           37.                  ANS: 

 

PTS:   1

 

           38.                  ANS: 

 

PTS:   1

 

           39.                  ANS: 

 

PTS:   1

 

           40.                  ANS: 

24

 

PTS:   1

 

           41.                  ANS: 

12

 

PTS:   1

 

           42.                  ANS: 

76

 

PTS:   1

 

           43.                  ANS: 

Nb

 

PTS:   1

 

           44.                  ANS: 

190.2

 

PTS:   1

 

           45.                  ANS: 

atomic mass units

 

PTS:   1

 

           46.                  ANS: 

osmium: 76 protons, 76 electrons; niobium: 41 protons, 41 electrons

 

PTS:   1

 

           47.                  ANS: 

the positive plate, because beta particles are negatively charged

 

PTS:   1

 

           48.                  ANS: 

Gamma rays have no charge.

 

PTS:   1

 

           49.                  ANS: 

The beta particles have less mass than the alpha particles and are more greatly

affected by the electric field.

 

PTS:   1

 

           50.                  ANS: 

Radiation Type

Composition

Symbol

Mass (amu)

Charge

Alpha

Helium nuclei, or alpha particles

4

2+

Beta

Electrons, or beta particles

1/1840

1–

Gamma

High-energy electromagnetic radiation

0

0

 

 

PTS:   1

 

PROBLEM

 

           51.                  ANS: 

Element

Number of protons

Number of electrons

Number of neutrons

Atomic number

Mass number

Sodium

11

 

 

11

23

Phosphorus

 

15

16

15

 

Cobalt

 

27

 

27

59

Bromine

35

 

45

35

 

Silver

47

47

 

 

108

 

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    3                    REF:   Page 98 | Page 99 | Page 100

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Composition of elements       MSC:              3

NOT:  Atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons. Mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons.

 

           52.                  ANS: 

79.904 amu

Bromine

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    3                    REF:   Page 102 | Page 103  

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Atomic mass of isotopes       MSC:              3

NOT:  Weighted atomic mass of element X = mass contribution of X-79 + mass contribution of X-81. Mass contribution of each isotope = (mass in amu of the isotope) * (percent abundance).

 

           53.                  ANS: 

23.985 amu

Magnesium

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    3                    REF:   Page 102 | Page 103  

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Atomic mass of isotopes       MSC:              3

NOT:  Weighted atomic mass of element X = mass contribution of X-24 + mass contribution of X-25 + mass contribution of X-26. Mass contribution = (mass of the isotope in amu) * (percent abundance).

 

           54.                  ANS: 

Number of protons = atomic number = 82.

Number of electrons = number of protons = 82.

Number of neutrons = mass number – atomic number = 125.

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 98 | Page 101   

OBJ:   4.3.1 Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom.

KEY:  Atomic number                                MSC:  3                    

NOT:  Atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons.         

 

           55.                  ANS: 

644.53 ´ g

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    3                    REF:   Page 97         

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Mass of an atom in grams     MSC:              3

NOT:  Atomic number = number of protons. Number of neutrons = mass number - atomic number. Mass of protons in n atoms = n (number of protons * 1.673 * 10^-24 + number of neutrons * 1.675 * 10^-24).

 

           56.                  ANS: 

1551.32 amu

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 102        

OBJ:   4.3.3 Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.                     NAT:  B.1                

TOP:   Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.           KEY:              Mass of individual atoms       MSC:              3

NOT:  The mass of an atom depends on the number of protons and neutrons. It is expressed in atomic mass units (amu).

 

           57.                  ANS: 

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    1                    REF:   Page 100        

OBJ:   4.3.2 Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

NAT:  B.1                 TOP:   Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers.

KEY:  Chemical symbol and notation           MSC:  3                    

NOT:  Isotopes are written with a shortened type notation. The notation includes the chemical symbol, atomic number and mass number. The atomic mass and the atomic number are written to the left of the chemical symbol. The atomic mass is denoted as a superscript and the atomic number is denoted as a subscript.

 

           58.                  ANS: 

Isotope

Decay

Nuclear equation

Carbon - 14

beta

Radium - 226

alpha

Uranium - 238

alpha and gamma

 

 

PTS:   1                     DIF:    2                    REF:   Page 106 | Page 107  

OBJ:   4.4.2 Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

NAT:  B.1 | B.6         STA:   11c | 11d        

TOP:   Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of mass and charge.

KEY:  Nuclear equations                            MSC:  3                    

NOT:  Both mass and atomic numbers are conserved in nuclear equations.