Orbitals and Electron Configurations

 

Completion

Complete each statement.

 

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.

amplitude

energy

frequency

hertz

Light

wave

wavelength

speed

Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of (1) ____________________ that behaves like a(n) (2) ____________________as it travels through space. (3)____________________is one type of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples include X rays, radio waves, and microwaves.

All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and (4)____________________. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is called a(n) (5) ____________________. The height of a wave from the origin to a crest or from the origin to a trough is the (6) ____________________. (7) ____________________ is the number of waves that pass a given point in one second. The SI unit for frequency is the (8) ____________________, which is equivalent to one wave per second.

 

Use each of the terms below to complete the statements.

Atomic emission spectrum

electron

frequencies

ground state

Higher

energy levels

lower

 

 

 

9.The lowest allowable energy state of an atom is called its ____________________.

10.Bohrís model of the atom predicted the ____________________ of the lines in hydrogenís atomic emission spectrum.

11.According to Bohrís atomic model, the smaller an electronís orbit, the ____________________ the atomís energy level.

12.†† According to Bohrís atomic model, the larger an electronís orbit, the ____________________ the atomís energy level.

13.†† Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its ____________________ moves to a higher-energy orbit.

14.†† According to Bohrís atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to the difference between the ____________________ associated with the two orbits it transitions between.

15.Bohrís atomic model failed to explain the ____________________ of elements other than hydrogen.

 

Choose the term in parentheses that correctly completes the statement.

 

††††††††††††† 16.Atomic orbitals (do, do not) have an exactly defined size. ____________________

††††††††††††† 17.Each orbital may contain at most (two, four) electrons. ____________________

††††††††††††† 18.All s orbitals are (spherically shaped, dumbbell shaped). ____________________

††††††††††††† 19.A principal energy has (n, n2) energy sublevels. ____________________

20.The maximum number of (electrons, orbitals) related to each principal energy level equals 2n2. ____________________

††††††††††††† 21.There are (three, five) equal energy p orbitals. ____________________

††††††††††††† 22.Hydrogenís principal energy level 2 consists of (2s and 3s, 2s and 2p) orbitals. ____________________

††††††††††††† 23.Hydrogenís principal energy level 3 consists of (nine, three) orbitals. ____________________

 

Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage.

Aufbau principle

electron configuration

ground-state electron configuration

Hundís rule

lowest

Pauli exclusion principle

Spins

stable

The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atomís (1)____________________. Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement that gives the atom the (2)____________________ possible energy. This arrangement of electrons is the most (3____________________ arrangement and is called the atomís (4)____________________.

Three rules define how electrons can be arranged in an atomís orbitals. The (5)____________________ states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. The (6)____________________ states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite (7)____________________. (8)____________________ states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.

 

Matching

 

Match the terms below with the correct definitions.

a.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

c.

quantum mechanical model of the atom

b.

SchrŲdinger wave equation

d.

atomic orbital

 

 

††††††††††††† 32.The modern model of the atom that treats electrons as waves

††††††††††††† 33.States that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time

††††††††††††† 34.A three-dimensional region around the nucleus representing the probability of finding an electron

††††††††††††† 35.Originally applied to the hydrogen atom, it led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom

Short Answer

 

Use the figure to answer the following questions.

 

 

††††††††††††† 36.Which letter(s) represent one wavelength?

††††††††††††† 37.Which letter(s) represent the amplitude?

††††††††††††† 38.If twice the length of A passes a stationary point every second, what is the frequency of the wave?

††††††††††††† 39.If you looked closely, could you see the wavelength of a fast-moving car? Explain your answer.

40.Using de Broglieís equation, which would have the larger wavelength, a slow-moving proton or a fast-moving golf ball? Explain your answer.

41.†† How do the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model of the atom differ in how they describe electrons?

42.†† Complete the following table.

 

Element

Atomic Number

Orbitals†††††††††††††††††††††††††††

1s 2s

Electron Configuration

9. Helium

 

 

1s≤

10.

7

 

 

11. Neon

 

 

 

 

††††††††††††† 43.†† What is germaniumís atomic number? How many electrons does germanium have?

††††††††††††† 44.What is noble-gas notation, and why is it used to write electron configurations?

††††††††††††† 45.Write the ground-state electron configuration of a germanium atom, using noble-gas notation.