Ch 2 - Quiz 1.1  Chemistry of Life

 

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

           1.           The three particles that make up atoms are

a.

protons, neutrons, and isotopes.

c.

positives, negatives, and electrons.

b.

neutrons, isotopes, and electrons.

d.

protons, neutrons, and electrons.

 

 

           2.           If a chlorine atom had 17 protons and 18 neutrons, it would be called

a.

chlorine-17.

c.

chlorine-35.

b.

chlorine-18.

d.

chlorine-1.

 

 

           3.           Which of the following terms describes a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions?

a.

compound

c.

nucleus

b.

isotope

d.

enzyme

 

 

           4.           A covalent bond is formed as the result of

a.

transferring electrons.

c.

transferring protons.

b.

sharing an electron pair.

d.

sharing a proton pair.

 

 

           5.           Ice floats on water because

a.

of cohesion.

c.

water shrinks when it freezes.

b.

ice has a higher density than water.

d.

water expands when it freezes.

 

 

           6.           A solution is a(an)

a.

combination of isotopes. 

b.

chemical reaction.

c.

evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances.

d.

combination of two or more liquids.

 

 

           7.           If the pH of stomach acid and of oven cleaner were measured,

a.

both would be below 7.

b.

both would be above 7.

c.

the pH of stomach acid would be above 7, but the pH of oven cleaner would be below 7.

d.

the pH of stomach acid would be below 7, but the pH of oven cleaner would be above 7.

 

 

           8.           Amino acid is to protein as

a.

fat is to lipid.

c.

sugar is to fat.

b.

DNA is to RNA.

d.

simple sugar is to starch.

 

 

           9.           Which statement is true?

a.

Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides.

b.

Glycerol is made of fatty acids.

c.

RNA molecules are made of nucleotides.

d.

Amino acids are made of proteins.

 

 

           10.         What is the process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals?

a.

cohesion

c.

chemical reaction

b.

adhesion

d.

dissolving

 

 

           11.         Which of the following is a form of energy that may be released during a chemical reaction?

a.

heat

c.

light

b.

sound

d.

all of the above

 

 

           12.         Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the

a.

products of the reaction.

c.

temperature of the reaction.

b.

speed of the reaction.

d.

pH of the reaction.

 

 

Modified True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.  If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true.

 

           13.         The isotope oxygen-18 has 18 protons. _________________________

 

           14.         When sugar is dissolved in water, the sugar and water are chemically combined. _________________________

 

           15.         Lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. _________________________

 

           16.         Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the cell without requiring high temperatures are antibodies. _________________________

 

Completion

Complete each statement.

 

           17.         Of the three subatomic particles, ___________ are most involved in forming chemical bonds.

 

           18.         A chemical bond formed by the transfer of electrons is a(an) ____________________ bond.

 

           19.         The pH scale is a measurement system that indicates the concentration of ____________________ in solution.

 

           20.         The name of an enzyme usually ends in ____________________.

 

Short Answer

 

           21.         What is mass number?

 

           22.         What accounts for water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion?

 

           23.         When H2 gas and O2 gas react to form water, what happens to the atoms that were in the gases, and what kind of bonds result?

 

           24.         Where does the energy that enables you to breathe and think come from?

 

Other

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

Element

Symbol

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

Atomic Number

Mass Number

Hydrogen

H

1

 

 

 1

 

Helium

He

2

 

 

 

 4

Carbon

C

 

6

 

 6

 

Oxygen

O

 

8

  8

 

 

Neon

Ne

 

 

10

10

20

Aluminum

Al

13

 

 

 

27

Zinc

Zn

 

 

30

30

65

 

Figure 2–1

 

           25.         Applying Concepts Based on Figure 2–1, what is the atomic number of oxygen?

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

pH Values of Some Common Substances

Substance

pH

Hydrochloric acid

 1.0

Sulfuric acid

 1.2

Tomatoes

 4.2

Rainwater

 6.2

Pure water

 7.0

Sea water

 8.5

Ammonium chloride

11.1

Sodium hydroxide

13.0

 

Figure 2–2

 

           26.         Applying Concepts What is the strongest acid listed in Figure 2–2?

 

           27.         Calculating A change of one unit on the pH scale represents a tenfold increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. According to the pH values listed in Figure 2–2, how much greater is the H+ ion concentration in tomatoes than in rainwater?

 

USING SCIENCE SKILLS

 

 

Figure 2–3

 

           28.         Applying Concepts Based on Figure 2–3, which enzyme would have the most activity in humans?

 

Essay

 

           29.         Explain the difference between ionic compounds and covalently bonded compounds.

 

           30.         How is chemistry related to living things?


Ch 2 - Quiz 1.1  Chemistry of Life

Answer Section

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

           1.                   ANS:  D                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1       REF:    p. 35

OBJ:   2.1.1              NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:   knowledge

 

           2.                   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3       REF:    p. 36

OBJ:   2.1.2              NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:   evaluation

 

           3.                   ANS:  A                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1       REF:    p. 37

OBJ:   2.1.3              NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:   knowledge

 

           4.                   ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1       REF:    p. 38

OBJ:   2.1.4              NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:   knowledge

 

           5.                   ANS:  D                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2       REF:    p. 40

OBJ:   2.2.1              NAT:  B.1 | B.2        KEY:  analysis

 

           6.                   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1       REF:    p. 42

OBJ:   2.2.2              NAT:  B.1 | B.2        KEY:  knowledge

 

           7.                   ANS:  D                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3       REF:    p. 43

OBJ:   2.2.3              NAT:  B.1 | B.2        KEY:  synthesis

 

           8.                   ANS:  D                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3       REF:    p. 45 | p. 47

OBJ:   2.3.1              NAT:  B.2 | C.1.c | C.2.a                           STA:   BL.4.e | BL.5.a

KEY:  synthesis

 

           9.                   ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2       REF:    p. 46 | p. 47

OBJ:   2.3.1              NAT:  B.2 | C.1.c | C.2.a                           STA:   BL.5.a

KEY:  analysis

 

           10.                 ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1       REF:    p. 49

OBJ:   2.4.1              NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              KEY:  knowledge

 

           11.                 ANS:  D                   PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2       REF:    p. 50

OBJ:   2.4.2              NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.6.f

KEY:  comprehension        

 

           12.                 ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2       REF:    p. 51

OBJ:   2.4.3              NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.1

KEY:  application

 

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

 

           13.                 ANS:  F, 8

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 36              OBJ:   2.1.2

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              evaluation

 

           14.                 ANS:  F, physically

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 41              OBJ:   2.2.2

NAT:  B.1 | B.2         KEY:  analysis

 

           15.                 ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1          DIF:     L1

REF:   p. 46              OBJ:   2.3.1              NAT:  B.2 | C.1.c | C.2.a    

STA:   BL.1.h            KEY:  knowledge

 

           16.                 ANS:  F, enzymes

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1                  REF:   p. 51              OBJ:   2.4.3

NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.1.b            KEY:  knowledge

 

COMPLETION

 

           17.                 ANS:  electrons

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 35              OBJ:   2.1.1

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              synthesis

 

           18.                 ANS:  ionic

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L1                  REF:   p. 38              OBJ:   2.1.4

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              knowledge

 

           19.                 ANS:  ions

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 43              OBJ:   2.2.3

NAT:  B.1 | B.2         KEY:  comprehension        

 

           20.                 ANS:  -ase

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 52              OBJ:   2.4.3

NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              KEY:  evaluation

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

           21.                 ANS: 

Mass number is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 35 | p. 36    OBJ:   2.1.2

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              application

 

           22.                 ANS: 

The ability of water to form multiple hydrogen bonds accounts for water’s properties of adhesion and cohesion.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 41              OBJ:   2.2.1

NAT:  B.1 | B.2         KEY:  synthesis

 

           23.                 ANS: 

The atoms in H2 gas and O2 gas are rearranged into water molecules.  Covalent bonds are formed between the H and O atoms.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 43              OBJ:   2.1.4

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              synthesis

 

           24.                 ANS: 

The energy comes from chemical reactions that release energy stored in food.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 50              OBJ:   2.4.2

NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.1               KEY:  analysis

 

OTHER

 

           25.                 ANS: 

8

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 35 | p. 36    OBJ:   2.1.2

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              application

 

           26.                 ANS: 

hydrochloric acid

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 43              OBJ:   2.2.3

NAT:  B.1 | B.2         KEY:  analysis

 

           27.                 ANS: 

100 times (10 ´ 10)

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 43              OBJ:   2.2.3

NAT:  B.1 | B.2         KEY:  evaluation

 

           28.                 ANS: 

enzyme X

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 50 | p. 51    OBJ:   2.4.3

NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.1.b            KEY:  synthesis

 

ESSAY

 

           29.                 ANS: 

In an ionic compound, valence electrons of atoms of one element have been transferred to the atoms of another element. Thus, ionic bonding involves the gain and loss of electrons. In covalently bonded compounds, atoms of different elements share electrons.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L3                  REF:   p. 38              OBJ:   2.1.4

NAT:  B.1 | B.2 | B.4                                           KEY:              synthesis

 

           30.                 ANS: 

Living things are made of chemical compounds—both simple and complex. Everything that happens in an organism is based on chemical reactions.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    L2                  REF:   p. 49              OBJ:   2.4.1

NAT:  B.3 | B.5 | C.1.b                              STA:   BL.1               KEY:  analysis